When a character is injured by a contaminated attack (such as a mummy’s slam attack, which can transmit mummy rot), touches an item smeared with diseased matter, or consumes disease- tainted food or drink, he must make an immediate Fortitude saving throw. If he succeeds, the disease has no effect—his immune system fought off the infection. If he fails, he takes damage after an incubation period. Once per day afterward, he must make a successful Fortitude saving throw to avoid repeated damage. Two successful saving throws in a row indicate that he has fought off the disease and recovers, taking no more damage.
You can roll these Fortitude saving throws for the player so that he doesn’t know whether the disease has taken hold.

Name Infection DC Incubation Damage Source
Ghoul Fever Injury (Bite) 12 1 day 1d3 con, 1d3 dex MM1
Blinding sickness Ingested 16 1d3 days 1d4 Str1 DMG
Cackle fever Inhaled 16 1 day 1d6 Wis DMG
Demon fever Injury 18 1 day 1d6 Con2 DMG
Devil chills3 Injury 14 1d4 days 1d4 Str DMG
Filth fever Injury 12 1d3 days 1d3 Dex, 1d3 Con DMG
Mindfire Inhaled 12 1 day 1d4 Int DMG
Mummy rot4 Contact 20 1 day 1d6 Con DMG
Red ache Injury 15 1d3 days 1d6 Str DMG
Shakes Contact 13 1 day 1d8 Dex DMG
Slimy doom Contact 14 1 day 1d4 Con2 DMG

1 Each time the victim takes 2 or more damage from the disease, he must make another Fortitude save or be permanently blinded.
2 When damaged, character must succeed on another saving throw or 1 point of damage is permanent drain instead.
3 The victim must make three successful Fortitude saving throws in a row to recover from devil chills.
4 Successful saves do not allow the character to recover. Only magical healing can save the character.

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