Random Gemstones

d% Value Average Examples
01–25 4d4 gp 10 gp Banded, eye, or moss agate; azurite; blue quartz; hematite; lapis lazuli; malachite; obsidian; rhodochrosite; tiger eye turquoise; freshwater (irregular)
26–50 2d4×10 gp 50 gp Bloodstone; carnelian; chalcedony; chrysoprase; citrine; iolite, jasper; moonstone; onyx; peridot; rock crystal (clear quartz); sard; sardonyx; rose, smoky, or star rose quartz; zircon
51–70 4d4×10 gp 100 gp Amber; amethyst; chrysoberyl; coral; red or brown-green garnet; jade; jet; white, golden, pink, or silver pearl; red spinel, red-brown or deep green spinel; tourmaline
71–90 2d4×100 gp 500 gp Alexandrite; aquamarine; violet garnet; black pearl; deep blue spinel; golden yellow topaz
91–99 4d4×100 gp 1,000 gp Emerald; white, black, or fire opal; blue sapphire; fiery yellow or rich purple corundum; blue or black star sapphire; star ruby
100 2d4×1,000 gp 5,000 gp Clearest bright green emerald; blue-white, canary, pink, brown, or blue diamond; jacinth


This is a compilation of actual gemstones, but it is not meant to reflect actuality. That is, it is aimed at use in a fantasy world environment, not as a treatise on gemology.

Table 2:9 Birth Stones, Lucky & Planetary Stones by Astrological Sign

Astrological Sign Birth Stone Lucky Stone Planetary Stone
Capricorn (Dec 22-Jan 19) Agate, Garnet, Ruby Ruby Lapis Lazuli
Aquarius (Jan 20-Feb 18) Amethyst, Moss Agate Turquoise Amethyst, Garnet
Pisces (Feb 19-Mar 20) Bloodstone,Sapphire Amethyst Aquamarine
Aries (Mar 21-Apr 19) Bloodstone, Diamond Bloodstone, Diamond Jasper
Taurus (Apr 20-May 20) Amber, Coral, Turquoise Diamond Quartz, Emerald
Gemini (May 21-Jun 20) Chrysoprase, Pearl Agate, Emerald Tigereye
Cancer (Jun 21-Jul 22) Emerald, Moonstone Chalcedony Moonstone
Leo (Jul 23-Aug 22) Onyx, Sardonyx Amber, Onyx, Peridot Rock Crystal
Virgo (Aug 23-Sep 22) Cornelian, Jade, Jasper Cornelian, Sardonyx Citrine
Libra (Sep 23-Oct 22) Lapis Lazuli, Opal Chrysolite Opal, Sardonyx Sapphire
Scorpio (Oct 23-Nov 21) Aquamarine, Topaz Aquamarine, Beryl Garnet, Ruby
Sagittarius (Nov 22-Dec 21) Topaz, Turquoise Topaz, Pearl Topaz

Table 2.10 Birth Stones

Month Arcane Western Eastern
January: Emerald or Rose Quartz Agate or Garnet Garnet
February: Onyx or Moonstone Amethyst Amethyst
March: Jade or Rock Crystal Bloodstone Bloodstone
April: Quartz or White Sapphire Diamond Diamond
May: Chrysoprase or Golden Beryl Emerald Agate
June: Moonstone or Common Opal Alexandrite or Moonstone Pearl
July: Cornelian Ruby Ruby
August: Jade Peridot or Sardonyx Sapphire
September: Diamond or Chrysoberyl Sapphire, Lapis Lazuli or Agate Moonstone
October: Pink Tourmaline, Aquamarine Tourmaline or Jasper Opal, precious
November: Citrine or Pearl Citrine Topaz Topaz
December: Lapis Lazuli or Onyx Zircon or Turquoise Jade

Table 2:11 Metal/Stone/Gems, d20 Spells, Magic Items, and General Game Effects

In the core rules of the d20 game system dealing with magic, magic items cost money to create. It stands to reason that expensive components would likely be rare objects, such as rare flora, elements of rare fauna, or rare minerals. The stone’s table provides you with suggestions to consider when developing magic items. For example, a sunsword would probably have one or more topaz gems embedded in its pommel, or perhaps powdered into the metal used to create it.
The gems could be used as optional power components, if you use that variant rule to replace XP loss with the consumption of a costly item, but this depends on your campaign and note that XP loss is a better form of limiting power for PCs than material loss.
Another option would be a variant rule to allow spellcasters to use gems for a little extra help or power. You could use the gems as a sort of focus to boost spells—with the focus being consumed after the spell is cast. Depending on the value of the stone and the spell being cast, it might provide one of the following effects:

Anywhere from a +1 to +4 increase in the DC to resist, if the spell has a saving throw.
Anywhere from a +1 to +4 bonus to overcome spell resistance.
The effects of the feats Extend Spell, Expand Spell, or Empower Spell for the spell being cast, without requiring a higher-level spell slot.
The effects of the Heighten Spell feat, limited to an increase of 1-2 levels, without requiring a higher-level spell slot.
Use your best judgment based on the rarity, the cost, and the properties of the gem, as well as game balance needs.

Agate Read Alignment, Zone of Truth, Tongues, Detect Thoughts
Agate, Amethystine Detect Chaos, Protection from Chaos, Dispel Chaos, Word of Chaos
Agate, Blue Laced Bestow Curse, Charm Person, Emotion, Dominate Person
Agate, Botswana Minor Creation, Secret Chest, Major Creation, Fabricate, Mind Fog
Agate, Geode All psionic powers; all enchantment spells
Agate, Moss Bless, Divine Favor, Remove Fear, Restoration
Agate, with fossils Locate Object, Major Creation, Fabricate, Legend Lore, Vision, Discern Location
Amber Any spell or magic item that resists negative emotions
Amethyst Wisdom-enhancing magics, removal/protection from intoxicants
Apatite Comphrehend languages, Tongues, any language-dependent spell
Apatite, Blue Any psionic power
Aquamarine Any spell that wards or dispells fear, Water breathing, Restoration, Greater restoration.
Aventurine Quartz, Blue Intellegence-ehancing magics, Dispel magic, Anti-magic field, Disjunction, Wounding weapons, Periapt of wound closure, anything that protects one from gas attacks
Beryl Intellegence boosting magic, anything that increases skill checks, items that can help detect secret doors and traps, items that help rogues skills
Bloodstone Lower level creation (healing) Cure spells, Remove disease
Chalcedony, Chrysoprase Any item that increases Wisdom, Charm Monster, Charm Person
Citrine Quartz Any evocation that deals with energies, Ethereal Jaunt, Astral Projection, Plane Shift, Gate, any magic item dealing with other planes/dimensions
Coral Emotion, Resistance, Protection from Evil, Calm Emotions
Cornelean Divine Favor, Invisibility to Undead, Remove Fear, Endurance, Augury
Diamond See Invisibility, Undetectable Alignment; True Seeing
Diopside Effects that improve ability scores as with Bulls Strength, Cats Grace etc.
Emerald Foresight, Find the Path, Animal Friendship, Detect Animals or Plants, Invisibility to Animals, Charm Person or Animal
Flint Dictum, Command, Shout, Dominate Person
Garnet Neutralize Poison, Aid, Sanctuary
Hematite Entropic Shield, Break Enchantment, Spell Turning
Iolite Magic Circle against Evil, Healing Circle
Iron pyrite Mislead, Suggestion, Clone, Alter Self, Any item or spell that is of the illusion school
Jade, Green Any item or spell that directly boosts saving throws
Jade, Yellow Any item or spell that directly boosts saving throws
Jasper, Green Any spell or item of the Healing domain or the Emotion spell
Jasper, Red Any spell or item of the Protection domain
Kunzite Passwall, Phase Door
Labradorite Feldspar Various Divination Spells; restoration of Wisdom or Intelligence points
Lapis Lazuli Mind Blank, Ring of Mind Shielding,Ring of X-ray Vision,Gem of Seeing, Blindness, Remove Blindness, any spell that is part of the Conjuration (healing) school
Malachite Change Self, Alter Self, Polymorph Self, Shape Change,Sleep and sleep based effects
Moldavite True Seeing, Gem of Seeing, Zone of Truth, Discern Lies
Moonstone Sancutary, Tiny Hut, Control Weather, Discern Location
Moonstone, Blue-White N/A
Moonstone, Golden N/A
Moonstone, Gray N/A
Moss Agate Various spells affecting nature, most Druid spells, Plant and Animal Cleric domains
Mother of Pearl Any item or spell of the Aburation school or Protection Domain
Obsidian Dispel Evil, Restoration, Greater Restoration
Obsidian, Black Anything that increases Wisdom or wisdom-based skills
Obsidian, Reddish Augury, Divination, Death Ward
Octahedron Mending, Fabricate, Creation (minor & major)
Onyx, Black Death Ward, virtually any spell or magic item dealing with the Necromancy or Evocation schools that cause damage/destruction
Onyx, White Enhances Creation (healing) and virtually any spell with the “good” descriptor
Opal, Black Mind Blank, Ring of Mind Sheilding,general psionic powers, general magic items that use spells from the Evocation school. Various Illusions (Figments and Glamours), anything that protects from scrying or detection (Misdirection, Screen, Secret page, Illusionary Script)
Opal, fire Endure Elements (Fire), Resist Elements (Fire), Fire Shield (Warm), Ring of Fire Resistance, Armor of Fire Resistance, Shield of Fire Resistance
Opal, Precious Emotion (hope), See Invisibility, True Seeing, Scrying (across planes)
Pearl Anything that enhances Charisma based attributes or skills
Peridot Anything that enhances Strength or Constitution
Petrified Wood Protection from Chaos, Order’s Wrath, Shield of Law
Quartz, Blue Anything that enhances Wisdom or Will saves, protection/immunity to fear, divination magic that points in the direction of a solution like Commune, Augury, Find the Path, etc.
Quartz, Clear Crystal N/A
Quartz, Rose Divinations dealing with the future, all Charm spells, Bless, and Aid
Quartz, Rutilated Any item or spell of the Conjuration school
Quartz, Smoky Emotion,any fear causing spell/item
Rhodocrosite Any item or spell providing protection from surprise
Rhodonite Any item or spell serving as protection versus fear or insanity
Ruby Expeditious Retreat, Detect Secret Doors, Freedom, Freedom of Movement
Sapphire, Blue Spells that protect against enchantments, divination, that compels truth or detects lies
Sapphire, White Virtually all abjuration effects, Wall of Force, Forcecage, other force-based protections, Prismatic Wall, Prismatic Sphere, Sanctuary, Protection against ingested poisons
Silver Protection from Elements, Secure Shelter
Soapstone Effects that improve ability scores. (Bulls Strength, Cats Grace)
Sodalite Enhances any Enchantment spell that is sonic or language dependent. Abjuration spells vs. evil
Sulfur Virtually any psionic effect, any Enchantment spell (including charms and compulsions), protection from diseases, Periapt of Wound Closure
Sunstone Any spell or item of the Healing or Good domain, or any positive Necromantic spell
Tanzanite Any spell that affects NPC reactions to reduce hostility
Tektite Banishment, magic circles
Tiger’s eye Healing and Knowledge domains; Clairvoyance
Topaz Color Spray, Glitterdust,Daylight, Continual Flame
Tourmaline (any) Cat’s Grace, Endurance, Haste, Mnemonic Enhancer
Tourmaline, Green Mass Haste
Tourmaline, Pink Demand, Irresistible Dance
Tourmaline, Rubellite Transformation, Iron Body
Turquoise Any spell or item of the Healing and Good Domains, or beneficial Adjuration spells

Table 2:12 Magical Affects of Metal and Stone for the Lejendary Adventure Game

Metal/Stone Legendary Effects
Agate Discernment, Understanding of Others and Circumstances.
Agate, Amethystine Moving, Change, Chaos
Agate, Blue laced Femininity, Emotion, Precognition
Agate, Botswana Gifts, Small Pleasures, Complacency
Agate, Geode Psionic Powers
Agate, Moss Peace of mind, Purifying
Agate, with Fossils Treasure, Lost Lore, and Relics
Amazonite Feldspar Guards and Strengthens the Heart, Self Worth and Confidence
Amber Brighten Mood, Bring Happiness
Amethyst Peace, Increase of Spirituality, Sobriety, Intuition, Psychic Awareness
Apatite Clear Speech
Apatite, Blue Psychic Invigoration and Power
Aquamarine Courage, Harmony, Protection from Drowning, Soothing of Mind, Lessening Grief
Aventurine Quartz, Blue Creativity, Cleansing and Balance of Energy, Blood and Breathing
Aventurine Quartz, Green Decisiveness, Internal Health and Healing
Beryl Understanding of Problems and Puzzles
Bloodstone Healing of Wounds, Fighting Internal Parasites
Chalcedony, Chrysoprase Compassion, Wisdom
Citrine Quartz Physical Energy, Access to the Non-Corporeal Realms
Coral Mental & Emotional Strength
Cornelean Wards Against Deadly Sins, Intellect and Creativity, Courage, Strength
Diamond Mental Power and Insight, Energy
Diopside Muscular Fitness, Mental Fitness
Emerald Fertility and Rebirth, Mental and Physical Strength and Healing, Spring, Love
Flint Rational thinking, Conviction, Determination
Flourite Common Sense, Impartiality, Internal Organs
Garnet Contentment, Protection from Poisons, Robust Health
Hematite Cheerfulness, Hope
Iolite Inner peace, Meditation and Spirituality, Anti-Toxin
Iron Pyrite Deception and Misunderstanding
Jade, Green Good fortune, Beauty
Jade, Yellow Good luck
Jasper, Green Happiness, Protection, Healing
Jasper, Red Attainment of Goals, Wards Against the Negative, Calmness
Kunzite Removes obstacles, Mental balance and calm emotion
Labradorite Feldspar Balance Between the Mind and Spirit, Psychic Insight
Lapis Lazuli Strength of Will & Clarity of Thought and Awareness, Eyesight, healing, Children
Malachite Transformation of Self, Balanced Judgement, Concord with Others, Promotes sleep
Moldavite Discerning , Falsehoods
Moonstone Serenity, Balance of Energy, Internal Health, Mental Healing
Moonstone, Blue-White Enhances Powers of Other Clear-White to Blue Minerals, Cools
Moonstone, Golden Enhances Powers of Other Yellow to Red Minerals
Moonstone, gray Enhances Powers of Other Dark Minerals
Moss agate Attunement to Nature, Flora and Fauna
Mother of Pearl Warding and Protection, Wealth
Obsidian Dispel Negative Energy
Obsidian, Black Common Sense
Obsidian, Reddish Decisiveness, Clearing Confusion
Octahedron Channels Energy into Work
Onyx, Black Resistance to Negativity, Focus and Control of Destructive/Negative Energy
Onyx, White Increase of Positive Energy, Focus and Control of Constructive Energy
Opal, Black Mystery, Power of Mind, Power Direction
Opal, Fire Action, Protection from Fire
Opal. Precious Hope, Observation and Sight into the Spiritual Realms
Pearl Love, Personal Influence
Peridot Energy, Strength.
Petrified Wood Law, Cognitive Clarity
Quartz, Blue Moral strength, Resolution, Wards Against Fears
Quartz, Clear Crystal Amplify Other Personal or Mineral Energy
Quartz, Rose Compassion, Love, Positive Mental Attitude and Sensing Opportunity
Quartz, Rutilated Creativity
Quartz, Smoky Mental Control of Emotions
Rhodocrosite Capacity to Deal with the Unexpected
Rhodonite Love, Blood and Courage
Ruby Love, Passion, Persistence, Freedom and Mobility
Sapphire, Blue Divinity, Mental Clarity and Cleansing of Thoughts, Sincerity
Sapphire, White Protection
Silver Survival & Impoverishment
Soapstone Adaptability, Daring
Sodalite Oration, Speech, Wards Against Evil and the Negative
Sulfur Mental power, Wards Against Infections and Disease
Sunstone Healing, Health, and Vigor, Warms
Tanzanite Disposition and Cheerfulness
Tektite Banishing, Wards Against Infernal Creatures
Tiger’s Eye Seeing and Sensing, Clear Thought, Increases Vision, Heals Bones
Topaz Sight, Fire and Warmth, the Sun, Courage
Tourmaline (any) Energy, Activity
Tourmaline, Green Vigor and Virility
Tourmaline, Pink Vigor and Femininity
Tourmaline, Rubellite Strength of Will and Determination
Turquoise Good health,Wards Against Disease and Evil

Suggested Values

The variables involved in setting anything like a “real” worth for gemstones are: hardness, durability (not necessarily linked to hardness), rarity of the stone, color, clarity (or other factor in translucent, opaque, or various special gems such as opals, pearls), weight, cut (or “skin” of a pearl), and demand—the popularity of the gemstone material in a particular culture and society. Thus, in a fantasy environment the make-believe worth of any gemstone is not fixed by actual market values.
If you are not relying on gemstone values given in a roleplaying game, then this chart might be used as a base for establishing the worth of the various sorts of stones. Assume all values are for fine specimens of their type. All stones are not listed, but the examples given should suffice for the individual to place any non-named stone into a grouping. Remember that rare and desired stones will have a commensurately higher value than similar ones that are easily available and/or not popular.
All values assume retail cost. “Trade” cost is about 50% retail worth. “Wholesale” value is about 25% retail worth. Unique stones, such as huge jewels and the like have no “trade” or “wholesale value” at all. They are always worth from about 70% to 120% of their retail value, the percent age depending on total worth, the greater the worth, the higher the percentage applicable.
Uncut/rough material is assumed to be at 10% to 15% of the price stated for finished material. Exceptions to this are very large crystals, mineral-masses, and substances where finishing does not dramatically reduce the weight of the material. In such cases the worth of the uncut/rough material is from 20% to 30% of the finished work.


Diamond, emerald, ruby (blood red), sapphire (blue)—also any very rare stones; $3,500 to $5,000 for a one-carat well-cut stone. For all stones in this category add 10% cumulative to the per carat value for each full carat above one.
Diamonds that are “flawless”, have a color—blue, green, bright yellow—and are above 10 carats in weight add an additional 10% cumulative per carat value above 10 carats due to their rarity, color, brilliance, and general demand.
Rubies that are “flawless”, are of pigeon’s blood hue, and are above 10 carats in weight add 15% cumulative per carat value due to their rarity, color, brilliance, and general demand.
Black (precious) opal that is in cut form and above five carats in weight is a jewel, and so has a value of $3,500 to $5,000 per carat; any carat weight above 10 carats add an additional 10% cumulative per carat value above 10 because of their rarity, color, and general demand.

Precious Stones

Alexandrite chrysoberyl (green showing red in artificial light), black (precious) opal, jade (emerald green), sapphire (other than blue), spinel (red); $1,500 to $2,500 for a one-carat well-cut stone. For all stones in this category add 10% cumulative to the per carat value for each full carat above one.

Semi-Precious Stones

Beryl, chrysoberyl, fire opal, green garnet, precious opal (not black), spinel (other than red), spodumene (both types), tanzanite (best blue), topaz, tourmaline; $500 to $1,000 for a one-carat well-cut stone. For all stones in this category add 5% cumulative to the per carat value for each full carat above one.

Fancy Stones

Cornelian, jadeite (pure green or violet), moonstone (whitish), nephrite (pure emerald green), opal (common), pearl (rare colors, spherical or pear-shaped and fine), peridot, spinel (red), zircon; $100 to $350 for a onecarat well-cut stone. For all stones in this category add 5% cumulative to the per carat value for each full carat above one.

Ornamental Stones

Amber, amethyst and other quartz stones (not otherwise noted above), coral, garnet (not otherwise noted), ivory, jadeite (other), lapis lazuli, malachite, moonstone (non-whitish), nephrite (other), pearl (other than noted above), turquoise; $1 to $50 for a one-carat wellcut stone.


A carat weighs 200 milligrams. There are 2,835 milligrams to an ounce, and one pound (16 ounces) avoirdu-pois is thus 45,360 milligrams. A one-carat gemstone, 200 milligrams, thus weighs about 0.07 of an ounce, a 10-carat stone weighs about 0.705 ounces, while a massive 100- carat stone comes in at 7.05 ounces. If one came upon a 1,000 carat gemstone, it wold weigh 70.54 ounces (4.41 pounds), while a massive, 10,000 carat stone (or that many one-carat ones…) would top out at 705.4 ounces (44.1 pounds). So now you know why precious gemstones have been the means of carrying large amounts of wealth for a long, long time!

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