List Of Materials Used For Construction

Materials & construction

Stone. Timber. Wrought iron. Where men live, they build. What they build can be as important to your setting as where they live. Whether they build squat, sod houses in the prairie where the bulrush grass grows or under the eves of the Larch trees upon the slopes of the Vorelberg Mountains you must determine the type of habitation and what materials were used in its construction.
Below you find terms laid out and defined and lists from which you can cull your own material and design the habitation that best suits your setting.

Materials

Adobe: A sun dried brick derived from a yellow silt or clay deposited by rivers.
Brick: A block of clay hardened by drying in the sun or burning in a kiln. Bricks come in numerous shapes and sizes. Bricks come in numerous densities and hardness depending on the baking process, parent material and the material mixed with it for hardening (pebbles, hay, grass, twigs ect).
Brick & Timber: Mud brick is different than normal bricks in that it is made from puddled mud which is later gathered, molded and sun dried. It is durable enough for light load bearing and can be carved fairly easily after drying. All external walls using this material are covered with linseed oil to help prevent weathering. This makes a poor brick in areas with extreme weather.
Cloth and Poles (pavilion, tent): Canvas, cotton and even silk are placed on poles to form makeshift or temporary structures. Shape and size are limited only to the weight of the material, strength of the supporting poles and the innovation of the builder. These do not hold up well in extreme weather conditions.
Earth, Rammed: Soils with high clay contents are pulverized moistened and dumped into frames or formed into walls. Compaction is created by ramming. These buildings are allowed to sun dry. Structurally sound and weather resistant, these buildings survive for several hundred years or more.
Felt (yurt): Similar to cloth and pole constructions, yurts use hides from animals instead of cloth. These are generally heavier and more durable constructions. Framing devices can be wood, iron or bone and come in many shapes including circular, square, and hexagonal. They include tepees and all related constructions.
Grass and Poles/Sticks (hogan, hut, shack, wickiup):
Popular in very dry areas, these constructions consist of poles and sticks interwoven with grasses and branches to form small structures. Often times these structures are recessed into the ground several feet or more.
Metal Sheet: Thin sheets of metal including gold, copper, bronze, steel and aluminum or others, used for siding or roofing in architecture. This includes corrugated metal. Sheet metal is used to protect exposed surfaces or for aesthetic reasons, rather than load bearing.
Matting: A course fabric of rushes, grass, straw, hemp, or the like used for wrapping, covering floors, etc.
Plaster & Board/Timber: Wooden structures are covered in a moistened mud, clay or soil for added protection and insolation. Mud and clay plasters are only use in drier climates.
Sod: A square or rectangular section cut or torn from the surface of grassland containing the matted roots of grass. Used in regions where there is little or no tree growth. Sod houses tend to be squat but solid constructions.
Stone: Limestone, marble, granite, sandstone and other durable rocks are used for construction. These rocks are altered and polished for specific needs and come in almost any shape imaginable. They are load bearing and durable often lasting thousands of years or more. Stone is used as facing, for internal support and augments or is augmented by brick and timber constructions.
Timber: The most widely used material for building. It is light, durable, strong and easily managed. Woods range widely in density and durability.
Wattle: Rods or stakes interwoven with twigs or tree branches. Wattle is used for making fences, walls etc. Also refers to basket manufacturing, the interweave. These are not very durable nor are they strong.
Wattle & Daub: The employment of Wattle, mud and clay for the construction of buildings. The mud is smeared into the wattle. Depending on the parent material, drying conditions and density of the wattle, these can be long lasting and fairly durable constructions.

Metals

Aluminum: A silvery metal, remarkable for its light weight and malleability and resistance to oxidation. It is found abundantly in clay.
Antimony: A silvery white brittle metal used in alloys with other metals to harden them and increase their resistance to chemical action.
Bismuth: A greyish-white, red tinted, brittle metal that is often found in a crystalized state in other metals, particularly cobalt. Chiefly used in making alloys of low melting points.
Brass: A yellowish metal that is an alloy of copper and zinc. Known for its hardness and durability.
Bronze: See below.
Copper: See below.
Electrum: See below.
Gold: See below.
Iron: A white metal that is malleable and ductile. It is the most common and useful of all the metals.
Iron, Cast: A hard, rigid and strong, nonmalleable ironcarbon alloy made by casting.
Iron, Magnetic (Lodestone): A strong magnetic variety of the mineral magnetite.
Iron, Meteoric: Iron usually alloyed with nickel and cobalt. Found in meteorites.
Iron, Wrought: A soft, ductile, malleable iron containing some slag and some carbon. It cannot be tempered or easily fused.
Latten: Brass or a brass-like alloy hammered into thin sheets.
Lead: A heavy, soft malleable bluish-gray metal used in piping an in numerous alloys.
Lodestone: See Iron, Magnetic above.
Magnesium: A light silver white metal, that is malleable and ductile used in making several alloys.
Mercury: A heavy silver, white metal liquid at ordinary temperatures, quick silver.
Nickel: See following page.
Nickel Silver (Nickel and Copper): See below.
Nickel Steel: A steel alloy made harder than ordinary steel by adding small amounts of nickel.
Pewter (Lead and Zinc): An alloy of tin with lead, brass or copper that takes on a grayish luster when polished.
Platinum: See below.
Silver: See below.
Steel: A hard metal composed of iron alloy with carbon added. Steel made be alloyed with other metals to make specific properties such as resistance to rust.
Tin: A soft silver white metallic element, malleable at room temperatures. Capable of a high polish and used as an alloy.
Titanium: A dark gray lustrous metal found in rutile and other minerals, used as cleaning agent in molten steel.
Zinc: Bluish white in color it is used as a protective coating for iron and as a constituent for various alloys.

Metals, The Complete Precious Metalsmith

Pure metal is 24 carat, or .999 fine in regards to silver, and alloys of it are indicated by the number in carats, or percentage of silver, of the main metal in the alloy. They are cataloged in order of value.
Platinum: The hardest of precious metals. It is worth c. 125% to 250% its weight in gold, even more if the smelting process employed in the fantasy milieu demands magical heat. It does not tarnish. It is a silvery metal with a soft and lustrous sheen. Platinum is very seldom alloyed with other metals.
Gold: The softest of precious metals. It does not tarnish. Usually in an alloy with other metals to increase its hardness. There are three general sorts of gold used in jewelry:
Yellow gold (18 carat): 75% gold, 15% silver, 10% copper. Value c. 77% pure gold.
Red gold (18 carat): 75% gold, 20% copper, 5% silver. Value c. 76% pure gold.
White gold (18 carat): 75% gold, 25% silver. Value c. 78% pure gold.
Electrum: A fairly hard alloy when compared to gold. An alloy of 24 carat gold and .999 fine silver, usually in equal proportions. It has a value of about 55% pure gold when alloyed in equal proportions. It tarnishes somewhat because of the silver content of the alloy. Electrum looks much like pale white gold.
Silver: A moderately soft metal worth about 1/60 to 1/ 100th its weight in gold. Silver tarnishes from exposure to air and other substances.
Nickel: A moderately hard metal that is the next to the least valuable of the pure ores of the group. It is worth around 20% its weight in .999 fine silver. Nickel tarnishes only slowly and to little extent, and polishing restores its shine. It has a soft silver-gray luster.
Nickel Silver: A moderately hard metal because of the combined metals used. An alloy of 50% copper and 50% nickel for increased hardness and little tarnishing. Value c. 17% .999 fine silver.
Copper: A moderately soft metal that is the least valuable of the group. It is worth around 9% to 12% its weight in silver. Copper tarnishes (corrodes) when exposed to air, but polishing restores its shine.
Bronze: A moderately hard metal because of the combined metals used. An alloy of 50% copper and 50% tin for increased hardness. Tarnishing is common, with verdigris apparent when oxidation of the metal occurs. Value c. 70% pure copper when used in equal proportions. Bronze had a copper-brown, or sometimes golden-brown hue when more copper is used (c.60%).

Fantastic Metals

Adamantite/Adamantium: If not the hardest, certainly one of the hardest of fantastic metals. It accepts magical enchantments, and it is worth at least five times its weight in platinum. Its weight is about 25% that of steel. It does not rust and is not a conductor of electricity. It holds an edge. It is a deep indigo metal with a soft and lustrous sheen.
Adamantite is sometimes alloyed with other metals, mainly steel in armor and weapons.
Mithril: A very hard fantastic precious metal. It accepts magical enchantments, and it is worth at least three times its weight in platinum. Its weight is about 60% that of steel. It does not rust or tarnish. It holds an edge. It is a bright, silver metal near to chrome in its appearance. Mithral is sometimes alloyed with other metals, silver for ornamentation, steel for armor and weapons.
Oracalc/Oracalcum: A very rare, hard and flexible fantastic metal with utmost tensile strength. It is worth at least 10 times its weight in platinum. Its weight is about 50% that of steel. It does not rust or tarnish, and it is a non-conductor of electricity. It holds an edge. Although extremely difficult to work, it can be forged as flexible or unyielding. It is a glowing, golden-copper color metal near to chrome it its appearance. Oracalcum is sometimes alloyed with other metals, silver for ornamentation, steel for strength etc.
Tilferium: A rare and exceptionally hard fantastic metal with great tensile strength and the capacity to “store” magical force. It is worth at around two times its weight in platinum. Its weight is about 20% that of steel. It corrodes very slowly when exposed to strong alkaline substances. It does not hold an edge well.
It is a dull gray-green in node form. One ounce of the metal contains, and can contain, sufficient magical energy to power one spell of middling sort. Tilferium is always alloyed with other metals, the maximum part of any sucmix being one-tenth. This is done to strengthen the alloy and to allow the containment of magical energy placed within such objects as are ten forged from the alloy.
Xagium: A very rare and very hard fantastic metal with incredible tensile strength and the capacity to “store” magical force. It is worth at around four times its weight in platinum. Its weight is about 50% that of steel. It does not rust or tarnish, and it is a non-conductor of electricity. It holds an edge of great keenness very well. Although difficult to work, it can be forged as flexible or unyielding. The metal has a dark metallic blue color that tints other metals with which it is alloyed. One ounce of the metal contains, and can contain, sufficient magical energy to power one spell of highest sort, or about 150% the energy of tilferium (see above). Xagium is always alloyed with other metals, the maximum part of any such mix being one-eighth, thus giving that much blue color to the mixture. This is done to strengthen the alloy, give flexibility and durability to it, and to allow the containment of magical energy placed within such objects forged from the alloy.

Table: Magical Metals for the d20 System

(Suggestions, to be considered for conversion later)

Metal Bonus Hardness Hit Points Weight ft. cubic Melts at F
Adamantite +4 20 40/inch of thickness 125# 3000
Mithril +3 15 30/inch of thickness 300# 3500
Oracalcum* +5 25 45/inch of thickness 225# 4500
Tilferium +3 14 30/inch of thickness 700# 3700
Xagium* +4 18 35/inch of thickness 100# 3850

Adamantite: Gives a +4 bonus to magical arms and armor made from this metal. If wearing armor made from this metal, any electrical-based magical attacks do only half damage with no save, and no damage with a successful saving throw.
Mithril: Gives a +3 bonus to magical arms and armor made from this metal.
Oracalcum: Gives a +5 bonus to magical arms and armor made from this metal. If wearing armor made from this metal, any electrical-based magical attacks do only half damage with no save, and no damage with a successful saving throw. Any cold or fire-based spells do half damage with no save, and one quarter damage with a successful saving throw.
Tilferium: Gives a +3 bonus to armor made from this metal. If wearing armor or using another magic item of this metal, it gives the user a Spell Resistance of 12 + caster level (up to 20, if the character is a spell caster).
Xagium: Gives a +4 bonus to arms and armor made fro this metal. If wearing armor made from this metal, any electrical-based magical attacks do only half damage with no save, and no damage with a successful saving throw. Also, If wearing armor or using another magic item of this metal, it gives the user a Spell Resistance of 15 + caster level (up to 25, if the character is a spell caster).

  • Items other than arms and armor, such as rings, rods, staves, wands, etc. can be made from these metals with the same bonuses and resistances.

Table: Value of Certain Metals per Ounce (gold & silver) for the d20 system

Metal Value (approx)
Platinum 50gp
Gold 25gp
Electrum 135sp
Silver 5sp
Nickel 1sp
Nickel-Silver 25cp
Copper 5cp
Bronze 4-5cp
Adamantite 250gp
Mithril 150gp
Oracalcum 500gp
Tilferium 100gp
Xagium 200gp

Table: MOH’s Hardness Scale

Hardness Material Note
1 Talc Easily scratched by the fingernail; equal to a pencil “lead” 1-2 or plaster of paris.
2 Gypsum Just scratched by the fingernail, 2.5; equal to limestone or a seashell.
3 Calcite Scratches and is scratched by a copper coin of 3.5; gold or silver in the 2.5 to 3.
4 Fluorite Not scratched by a copper coin and does not scratch glass; equal to brass at 4, platinum at 4 to 4.5 is a bit harder.
5 Apatite Just scratches glass and is easily scratched by a steel knife; equal to iron at 4.5 to 5, but glass is 5.5 to 6.
6 Orthoclase Easily scratches glass and is just scratched by a file; iron pyrite 6.5, steel file 6.5 to 7.
7 Quartz Not scratched by a file unless of hardened steel alloy at 7.5.
8 Topaz N/A.
9 Corundum N/A.
10 Diamond N/A.

Table: Continuation of Hardness Scale

A modified scale to include magic materials.

Hardness Material Note
0 Liquid N/A
1 Talc Easily scratched by the fingernail; equal to a pencil “lead” 1-2 or plaster of paris.
2 Gypsum Just scratched by the fingernail, 2.5; equal to limestone or a seashell.
3 Calcite Scratches and is scratched by a copper coin of 3.5; gold or silver in the 2.5 to 3.
4 Fluorite Not scratched by a copper coin and does not scratch glass; equal to brass at 4, platinum at 4 to 4.5 is a bit harder.
5 Apatite Just scratches glass and is easily scratched by a steel knife; equal to iron at 4.5 to 5, but glass is 5.5 to 6.
6 Orthoclase Easily scratches glass and is just scratched by a file; iron pyrite 6.5, steel file 6.5 to 7.
7 Vitreous pure silica not scratched by a file unless of hardened steel at 7.5
8 Quartz just scratched by magic-enhanced steel
9 Topaz just scratched by powerfully magic-enhanced steel
10 Garnet just scratched by mithril
11 Fuzed zirconia just scratched by adamantite
12 Fuzed alumina just scratched by tilferium
13 Silicon carbide just scratched by magic-enhanced mithril
14 Boron carbide just scratched by magic-enhanced adamantite
15 Diamond just scratched by magic-enhanced tilferium

Wood

Alder: A tree which grows in moist land whose bark is used in dyeing and tanning. The wood is used for bridges and piles because it is resistant to underwater rot.
Ash, White: Tough elastic wood with a straight, close grain.
Ash, European: See above.
Balsa: A very light, strong wood, used for raft construction.
Basswood: A light soft durable wood.
Beech: A large-sized tree that produces hard woods. The smooth bark of a beech tree was used for writing upon.
Birch: A hard, smoot-grained wood whose bark strips off in layers. Birch wood is most valued in furniture construction.
Brazilwood: A reddish wood that is capable of yielding a red dye.
Cedar: Used for the durability of the wood. Associated with a fragrant building material as well.
Cherry: A hard, durable wood that is most commonly used in the construction of furniture, handles, toys, etc.
Cocobolo: A hardwood tree that is used in cabinet work and tool making.
Elm, Dutch & English: Tall, hardy shade trees whose wood makes a hard, heavy wood. The wood is finegrained and valuable for its resistance to splitting.
Elm, Ebony: See above.
Hickory, White: A tough wood used for construction of houses, fences and the like.
Kingwood: A Brazilian wood used much in cabinet work because of its streaks of violet tints.
Lime: See Basswood above.
Mahogany: A hardwood that is commonly used in furniture, it varies in color from reddish-brown to yellow.
Maple: A hard, close-grained wood used for furniture making and flooring. Colors range from reddish to yellow.
Maple, Hard: See above.
Oak: The wood is hard, tough, relatively flexible, resistant to water and not too heavy. It bares weather changes far more than most other woods. It is valued in all manner of construction from flooring, furniture, millwork, cross ties, mine timbers, fenceposts, houses and ships. The bark is used in tannin.
White Plane: As sycamore.
Poplar, European: These trees are tall and fast growing with soft wood. A hybrid poplar tree which produces a superior type of timber.
Brazilian Rosewood: A hard, reddish-black streaked wood with a rose-like odor. Used for making furniture.
Sycamore: A tree common in the middle east, growing large and to a great height. It is used in almost all facets of building construction.
Sycamore, Indian: See above.
Teak: A large tree with a yellowish-brown wood highly prized in ship building.
Walnut, Black: A large hardwood, whose wood is highly prized and used for furniture, gunstocks and vaneer.
Yellow Boxwood: A yellowish, fine, close-grained wood used in engraving, instrument making and in fine woodwork.

Stone

There are three basic types of rock; igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
Igneous rocks are formed from melted rocks which have cooled. The heating occurs deep in the earth and the cooling near the surface. They are generally course grained though quickly cooled rocks. Those, such as obsidian, are not. Most have crystalline structure in them. These are created during the molten stage. Examples: Obsidian (volcanic glass), granite, basalt, and andesite porphyry.
Sedimentary rocks are formed at the surface of the Earth, either in water or on land. They are layered accumulations of sediments, fragments of rocks, minerals, or animal or plant material. They are held together by minerals, chemicals or electrical actions. They generally form parallel to the earth’s surface and only change their orientation due to tectonic or volcanic activities. The degree of compaction nature of the parent material indicates the hardness of the rock. Examples: Sandstone, limestone, shale.
Metamorphic rocks are sedimentary or igneous rocks which have changed due to high pressures or intense heat. This generally occurs deep under the earth’s surface. The process transforms the rocks into denser and more compact rock. The process can also separate the fine mineral grains found in many sedimentary and igneous rocks to form pure minerals.

Rock Hardness scale and representative samples; Many rocks have varying strengths depending on parent material and formation processes.
Very weak: Weakly compacted and weathered sedimentary rocks; sandstones, shale.
Weak: Weakly cemented sedimentary rocks; schist sandstones, shale, slate, limestone.
Medium: Competent sedimentary rocks; some low-density coarse-grained igneous rocks, sandstones, slate, limestone.
Strong: Competent igneous rocks; some metamorphic rocks and fine-grained sandstones, granite, basalt, marble, slate, limestone.
Very strong: Quartzites; dense fine-grained igneous rocks, diorite, basalt, marble, slate, steel, limestone.

Alabaster: Smooth white translucent stone with a band.
Basalt: A dark gray to black dense stone.
Chert: Usually a dark flint, of fine grained igneous rock.
Conglomerate: A rock composed of compacted stones.
Gneiss: A hard-core foliated metamorphic rock similar to granite.
Granite: A very hard crystalline metemorphic rock ranging in colors from pink to black.
Greenstone: A fine-grained, hard metamorphosed rock of various shades of green.
Limestone: A soft sedimentary rock ususally formed on the sea floor.
Marble: A very hard crystalline limestone.
Obsidian: A very fine-grained, quickly cooled metemorphic rock, similar to basalt in structure.
Phyllite: A shiny, corrugated rock that slate turns into under heat and pressure.
Pumice: A very light, cavity filled volcanic rock.
Quartzite: A crystalline mineral with hexegonal formation with cloudy to transparent coloration.
Sandstone: A common sedimentary rock of various densities and colors.
Slate: A hard metamorphic rock that fractures into rather thin slices.
Tuff: A rock made of volcanic ash that can be extremely strong or very weak.

Other Materials

Bamboo: A tropical plant which reaches heights in excess of 100 feet. The mature plant is used to build house frames, furniture, ships masts and so forth. Smaller stalks are used for poles, instruments etc.
Bone: A firm, hard substance, dull white in color. Used to build small furniture and or decorative items.
Ceramic: Of pottery, earthenware, tile, porcelain etc.
Cloth: A woven, knitted or pressed fabric of fibrous material, such as wool, hair, cotton, flax, hemp. Used for garments or household furnishings.
Horn: An animal by-product, used to create weapons, drinking cups, beakers, flasks or decorative items.
Ivory: An animal by product from tusks or horns. Used to make any number of items from teeth to combs, and handles for weapons.
Leather: Material consisting of animal skin after tanning. Used to make armor, clothing, tack etc.
Rattan: A form of palm tree used to make wicker work, walking sticks, thongs, ropes, etc.
Wicker: A small pliant twig. When woven together it makes basket work, furniture and like items.

General Information of the Period

Bate: The liquid for softening rawhide was called bate. It was a mixture of water and dog feces.
Cement: Cement was made by heating chalk or limestone in a furnace or oven. Then by mixing it with water and sand in proper proportions a concretion was made.
Daub: The plaster-like material called daub is made from clay, dung, and horsehair, water added for pliability.
Fleece Wash: Because sheep fleece is full of lanolin (greasy oil), they were washed before being dried, rolled, and stored for later disposal. The mixture used was water and urine.
Grammercy: An isolated farm house; a farmstead attached to a monastery.
Lime Wash: Powdered lime for cement was mixed with water to make a white wash that sealed and protected daub and stone alike.
Multure: Payment for milling grain was known as multure. The payment was in kind, from 1/12th to 1/24th of the flour produced by milling paid to the owner of the mill.
Rive: The method of cutting timber with an axe, producing stronger beams this way than could be done by sawing, is called riving.
Wattle: The latticework of woven reeds such as cat-tails and/or twigs and branches was typically from hazel or willow laced onto poles.


Misc Tables

1 -Tensile Strength per Square Inch; The number of # of pressure required to break metal.
2 -Melting Points, Temperature in Degrees Fahrenheit;
Note: The heat of a common fire is 790 degrees F. The heat of an alcohol fire is 1700 degrees F. The heat of a coal gas fire augmented by a blowpipe is 2200 degrees F. The heat of an oxygen-hydrogen gas fire augmented by a blowpipe is 2400 degrees F.
3 - Materials’ Resistance to Crushing Material is crushed by the number of tons indicated.

Material # pressure required to break metal. Melting Points in Fahrenheit Crushed by # of Tons
Ash Wood N/a N/a 4.3
Beech Wood, Seasoned N/a N/a 9.5
Birch Wood, Seasoned N/a N/a 5.8
Aluminum / 1220 N/a
Antimony / 1166 N/a
Bismuth / 176 N/a
Brass 42,000 1900 5.1
Brick N/a N/a 0.4
Brick, Fire N/a N/a 0.9
Brickwork N/a N/a 0.3
Bronze / 1922 N/a
Cedar Wood N/a N/a 2.9
Copper wire 61,200 2160 N/a
Copper, cast 19,000 2160 N/a
Copper, wrought 34,000 2160 N/a
Elder Wood N/a N/a 4.9
Elm Wood, Seasoned N/a N/a 5.1
Fir wood, Spruce N/a N/a 3.4
Gold, cast 20,000 1983 N/a
Granite N/a N/a 5.5
Iron wire 103,000 2795 N/a
Iron, bar 72,000 2795 N/a
Iron, cast 27,000 2795 49.0
Iron, Plate N/a 2795 16.0
Lead 880 594 N/a
Mahogany Wood N/a N/a 4.0
Magnesium / 1202 N/a
Mercury / -38 N/a
Nickel / 2647 N/a
Oak Wood N/a N/a 2.9
Oak Wood, Seasoned N/a N/a 3.7
Pine Wood, Yellow N/a N/a 2.7
Pine Wood, Pitch N/a N/a 3.3
Platinum wire 53,000 3221 N/a
Silver, cast 40,000 1763 N/a
Stone, Ashlar Block N/a N/a 5.3
Steel 120,000 2800 N/a
Sycamore Wood, Seasoned N/a N/a 6.0
Tin 5,000 421 N/a
Tin-bismuth alloy / 283 N/a
Titanium / 3020 N/a
Walnut Wood N/a N/a 3.6
Zinc 3,500 787 N/a

Table: Weight of Things

One cubic foot of the following things weighs in pounds

Material Weight in Pounds
Alabaster 170
Aluminum 161
Amber 68
Antimony 414
Bismuth 613
Borax 107
Brass 520-525
Bricks 120-125
Bronze 520-545
Chalk 174
Charcoal, Hardwood 18.5
Charcoal, Softwood 18
Chromium 406
Clay 135
Clay, Hardpan 160
Coal, Hard (Anthracite) 54
Coal, Soft (Bituminous) 50
Copper 555
Copper (6’ x 3.5’-2.5’ x 2’) ingot 11.56#
Coral 169
Cork 15
Diamond 220
Emery 250
Flint 162
Glass 180
Gold 1203
Gold (6’ x 3.5’-2.5’ x 2’) ingot 24.37#
Hematite 316
Iron, Cast 454
Iron, Rolled 487
Iron, Wrought 485
Ivory 114
Jadeite 209
Jet 84
Lapis Lazuli 169
Lead 709
Lime, Quick 50
Magnesium 109
Malachite 241
Mercury 848
Nephrite 188
Nickel 556
Obsidian 156
Olive Oil 59
Onyx Marble 169
Phosphorus 128
Platinum 1213
Platinum (6’ x 3.5’-2.5’ x 2’) ingot 25.37#
Quartz 166
Sand, dry 95
Silver 654
Silver (6’ x 3.5’-2.5’ x 2’) ingot 13.62#
Soil, Common 124
Steel 490
Stone Limestone 165
Stone, Granite 165
Stone, Marble 171
Stone, Paving 150
Stone, Sandstone 130
Stone, Slate 167
Sulfur 129
Tallow 59
Tin 456
Tungsten 1194
Turquoise 169
Water, Fresh 62.5
Water, Salt 64.3
White Lead 198
Wood, Alder 50
Wood, Apple 49.5
Wood, Ash 48
Wood, Beech 46
Wood, Cedar 35
Wood, Cherry 44.5
Wood, Ebony 83.3
Wood, Elm 44
Wood, Hickory 52.4
Wood, Logwood 57.4
Wood, Mahogany 57
Wood, Maple 46.8
Wood, Mulberry 56
Wood, Oak 45-55
Wood, Oak, live 70
Wood, Pear 41.4
Wood, Pine 34-43
Wood, Pine, White 30
Wood, Pine, Yellow 42
Wood, Plum 49
Wood, Poplar 46
Wood, Quince 44
Wood, Sassafras 30.1
Wood, Yew 49.8
Zinc 439
Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License