Running A Kingdom

Published in Pathfinder #32 "Rivers Run Red" as part of the Kingmaker AP. Highly reccomend purchasing the issue this is found in, as well as the .pdf, if you wish to let your player characters preside over a kingdom of their own. Splendidly made.

Creating a Kingdom

A major part of the Kingmaker Adventure Path is the PCs’ creation of a kingdom and the cities within its borders. This article presents rules for creating kingdoms and cities. Like characters, kingdoms use sheets to track their statistics. See below for a blank kingdom sheet. Use the following notes to fill in a kingdom’s initial values.
Alignment: A kingdom’s alignment affects its statistics, so choose your kingdom’s alignment carefully. Lawful kingdoms gain a +2 bonus on Economy checks. Chaotic kingdoms gain a +2 bonus on Loyalty checks. Good kingdoms gain a +2 bonus on Loyalty checks. Evil kingdoms gain a +2 bonus on Economy checks. Neutral kingdoms gain a +2 bonus on Stability checks (a truly neutral kingdom gains this bonus twice).
Size: Count the number of hexes your kingdom comprises and record that number here. This number affects a kingdom’s Consumption and its Control DC.
Control DC: A kingdom’s Control DC is 20 + its size; this value is the DC you’ll be rolling against most often with your kingdom’s Stability, Economy, and Loyalty checks.
Population: Actual population numbers do not factor into your kingdom’s statistics, but it can be fun to track the number anyway. A kingdom’s population is equal to its size × 250 + the total population of each of its cities.
Stability, Economy, and Loyalty: These three values are analogous to saving throws. You make Stability checks during a kingdom’s Upkeep phase to determine whether it remains secure. You make Economy checks during a kingdom’s Income phase to determine how much its treasury increases. You make Loyalty checks to keep the public peace. A kingdom’s initial scores in all three of these categories is 0 + the kingdom’s alignment modifiers. A natural 1 is always a failure for these checks, and a natural 20 is always a success.
Unrest: A kingdom’s Unrest value indicates how rebellious its people are. A kingdom’s Unrest score is applied as a penalty on all Stability, Economy, and Loyalty checks. If a kingdom’s Unrest is above 10, it begins to lose control of hexes it has claimed. If a kingdom’s Unrest score ever reaches 20, it falls into anarchy. While in anarchy, a kingdom can take no action and treats all Stability, Economy, and Loyalty check results as 0. Restoring order once a kingdom falls into anarchy typically requires a number of quests and lengthy adventures by the kingdom’s would-be leaders—if your PCs’ kingdom falls into anarchy, you can either assume the Kingmaker Adventure Path is over (as you might if all of the PCs were slain in an encounter), or you can simply let the PCs “restart” a new kingdom elsewhere in the Stolen Lands. Unrest can never go below 0—adjustments that would normally reduce Unrest lower than 0 are wasted.
Consumption: A kingdom’s prosperity is measured by the Build Points (abbreviated BP) in its treasury, and its Consumption indicates how many BP it costs to keep the kingdom functioning. If a kingdom is unable to pay its Consumption, its Unrest increases by 2. A kingdom’s Consumption is equal to its size plus the number of city districts it contains plus adjustments for Edicts minus 2 per farmland.
Treasury: As your kingdom earns money, favors, resources, and power, its Build Point total increases. In the Kingmaker Adventure Path, you begin with 50 BP in your kingdom’s treasury (this amount is bestowed upon you by the swordlords of Restov).
Special Resources: If your kingdom includes any special resources (see below), record them here.
Leadership: Write in the names of the PCs or NPCs filling each of the 11 leadership roles here, along with their appropriate modifiers.

Golarion’s Newest Kingdom

One thing that this campaign doesn’t assume or provide is a name for the kingdom the PCs are building—its name is up to them. Therefore, in this volume of Pathfinder Adventure Path and the four that follow it, the kingdom is at all times referred to as the “Stolen Lands,” regardless of how many or how few hexes the PCs add to their kingdom. Note that for this Adventure Path, it’s assumed that the PCs’ kingdom is a monarchy, and thus its rulers are kings and queens. While one could certainly further customize and adapt these rules to allow for different types of government, such rules are beyond the scope of this Adventure Path.


Edicts (promotions, taxes, and festivals) increase your kingdom’s Stability, Economy, and Loyalty scores. Promotions can include recruitments, advertisements, and even propaganda campaigns. Taxes are payments gathered from a kingdom’s citizens to help pay for Consumption. Festivals, which can also include parades and other public events, can increase the kingdom’s happiness and loyalty.

Special Resources

Some hexes do more than just add size to a kingdom— they also add resources and impact a kingdom’s Stability, Economy, Loyalty, and other elements.
Bridge: A bridge hex negates the cost increase of building a road that crosses a river.
Building: If you establish a city in a hex at a building location, you can incorporate the building into the city as a free building—the encounter indicates what type of building it counts as. See below for a list of building types.
Cave: Caves can be used as defensive fallback points, storage, or even guard posts or prisons. A cave hex increases a kingdom’s Stability by 1.
Landmarks: Landmarks are sites of great pride, mystery, and wonder. They serve well to bolster a kingdom’s morale. A landmark hex increases a kingdom’s Loyalty by 1.
Road: A hex with a road in it allows for much easier travel. For every four road hexes your kingdom controls, the kingdom’s Economy increases by 1. For every eight road hexes your kingdom controls, its Stability increases by 1.
Ruins: A ruin can be incorporated into a city as a building—doing so halves the cost of the building, as the ruin only needs to be repaired rather than having to be built from the ground up. The encounter indicates what type of building a repaired ruin counts as. See below for a list of building types.
Towns: A town consists of an established settlement— claiming a town hex is an excellent way to add a fully functional city to a kingdom. In order to claim a town hex peacefully, the annexing kingdom must make a Stability check (DC = Command DC). Failure indicates that radicals and upstarts in the town increase your kingdom’s Unrest score by 2d4.
Resources: Resources include particularly valuable sources of lumber, metal, gems, food, or the like. A resource hex increases a kingdom’s Economy by 1.

Kingdom Edicts

Promotion Type Stability Bonus Consumption Increase
None –1
Token +1 1 BP
Standard +2 2 BP
Aggressive +3 4 BP
Expansionist +4 8 BP
Taxation Level Economy Bonus Loyalty Penalty
None +0 +1
Light +1 –1
Normal +2 –2
Heavy +3 –4
Overwhelming +4 –8
Festivals per Year Loyalty Bonus Consumption Increase
None –1
1 +1 1 BP
6 +2 2 BP
12 +3 4 BP
24 +4 8 BP

Leadership Roles

A healthy kingdom has leaders filling a number of different roles. Each leader grants the kingdom different benefits; leaving a role unfilled can penalize the kingdom. In order for a Leadership role to grant its bonus, the character in that particular role must spend at least 1 week per month engaged in various leadership duties (during which time the PCs must be located within a hex that is part of their kingdom). For this campaign, it’s best to have the party pick the same week to dedicate to their administrative duties so that all of the PCs are all available for “adventuring duty” at the same time. A single character can only occupy one leadership role at a time.


The ruler is the primary leader of the kingdom. Unlike the other leadership roles, a ruler uses one of three distinct titles, depending on the current size of the kingdom. For a kingdom of size 1–20, its ruler is known as a baron or baroness. For a kingdom of size 21–80, its ruler is known as a duke or duchess. A kingdom of size 81 or higher is ruled by a king or queen.
Benefit:A baron or baroness chooses one of a nation’s statistics (Economy, Loyalty, or Stability) and modifies that score by a value equal to the character’s Charisma modifier. A duke or duchess chooses two of these values to modify. A king or queen modifies all three values.
Vacancy Penalty: A kingdom without a ruler cannot claim new hexes, create farmlands, build roads, or purchase city districts. Increase Unrest by 4 during each Upkeep phase in which the kingdom has no ruler.
Special: Two characters can fill this role if they become married, in which case the two rulers can jointly command the kingdom. Both rulers apply their Charisma modifiers to the kingdom’s Stability, Economy, and Loyalty checks as appropriate for their rank, and as long as one of the two rulers is present for 1 week per month, they avoid the vacancy penalty.


The councilor ensures that the will of the citizenry is represented.
Benefit: Increase Loyalty by a value equal to the Councilor’s Wisdom or Charisma modifier.
Vacancy Penalty: Decrease Loyalty by 2; the kingdom cannot gain benefits from festivals. Increase Unrest by 1 during each Upkeep phase in which the kingdom has no Councilor.


The General commands the kingdom’s armies and is a public hero.
Benefit: Increase Stability by a value equal to the General’s Strength or Charisma modifier.
Vacancy Penalty: Decrease Stability by 4.

Grand Diplomat

The Grand Diplomat oversees international relations.
Benefit: Increase Stability by a value equal to the Grand Diplomat’s Intelligence or Charisma modifier.
Vacancy Penalty: Decrease Stability by 2; the kingdom cannot issue Promotion Edicts.

High Priest

The high priest guides the kingdom’s religious needs and growth.
Benefit: Increase Stability by a value equal to the High Priest’s Wisdom or Charisma modifier.
Vacancy Penalty: Decrease Stability and Loyalty by 2. Increase Unrest by 1 during each Upkeep phase in which the kingdom has no High Priest.


The Magister guides a kingdom’s higher learning and magic.
Benefit: Increase Economy by a value equal to the Magister’s Intelligence or Charisma modifier.
Vacancy Penalty: Decrease Economy by 4.


The Marshal helps organize patrols and enforces justice in rural and wilderness regions.
Benefit: Increase Economy by a value equal to the Marshal’s Dexterity or Wisdom modifier.
Vacancy Penalty: Decrease Economy by 4.

Royal Assassin

The Royal Assassin can serve as a public executioner, a headsman, or a shadowy assassin.
Benefit: Increase Loyalty by a value equal to the Royal Assassin’s Strength or Dexterity modifier. Fear inspired by the Royal Assassin reduces Unrest by 1 during each Upkeep phase.
Vacancy Penalty: A kingdom without a Royal Assassin suffers no vacancy penalty.


The Spymaster observes the kingdom’s underworld and criminal elements and spies on other kingdoms.
Benefit: Increase Loyalty, Economy, or Stability (Spymaster’s choice) by a value equal to the Spymaster’s Dexterity or Intelligence modifier. The Spymaster can change which value he modifies during the kingdom’s Improvement phase (but only once per phase).
Vacancy Penalty: Reduce Economy by 4 because of out-of-control crime. Increase Unrest by 1 during each Upkeep phase in which the kingdom has no Spymaster.


The Treasurer organizes tax collection, and manages the treasury.
Benefit: Increase Economy by a value equal to the Treasurer’s Intelligence or Wisdom modifier.
Vacancy Penalty: Reduce Economy by 4; the kingdom cannot collect taxes.


The Warden leads the kingdom’s defense and city guards.
Benefit: Increase Loyalty by a value equal to the Warden’s Strength or Constitution modifier.
Vacancy Penalty: Reduce Loyalty by 4 and Stability by 2.

Building Cities

The greatest asset of any kingdom are its cities, for it is here that the bulk of a kingdom’s citizens live, its armies train, its culture develops, and its future is forged. The rules presented here are designed to support the rules for kingdom building presented in the first portion of this article and to give players a visual representation of a city (the city grid) they helped to build up from scratch.

Reading the Grid

The city grid consists of 36 city blocks, each arranged into nine larger squares. Each block is separated by alleys, while each square is separated by streets. The nine squares themselves are in turn bordered by four sides—each side represents a border to the entire city district. A district border can represent a city wall, a river, a lake or ocean shore, a cliff, or merely the transition from one city district into another. For larger cities, you can prepare multiple districts sharing common borders.
As the PCs build structures and locations, they can place cut-out representations of their buildings into these city blocks, eventually creating a visual representation of their completed city.

Preparing the Site

Once you select a location for your city (which must be in a hex you have explored and cleared), you must pay to have the site cleared and prepared to support the city’s roads and buildings. The cost and time required to clear space in various terrains is detailed on the table on page 59.
Once you finish preparing the site, decide which of the district’s borders are water (in the form of riverbanks, lakeshores, or seashores) or land. Record these choices at each border on your city grid. In addition, adding a city district to a kingdom increases its Consumption by 1.

The City Grid in Play

You can use your city grid to aid in resolving encounters or adjusting kingdom or city statistics.
Destroyed Blocks: If an event destroys one or more blocks, the devastation causes +1 Unrest per destroyed block. The cost to build the replacement structure is halved if the replacement is the same type of structure as the one that preceded the destruction.
City Grid Scale: Although combat encounters in a city should still be played out normally, you might need to determine how long it takes for someone to travel from one location to another in the city in the case of multiple encounters. In this case, treat each city block as if it were a 750-foot square—this means that an entire city district is about 1 square mile in size.

Base Value
When using these rules to build a settlement, the city’s base value (see Pathfinder RPG Core Rulebook, pages 460– 461) starts at 200 gp. It increases as you construct certain buildings, like shops and marketplaces.

Building A City
Once you’ve prepared your city district, you can start to build. The placement of buildings in your district is left to you, but two-block and four-block structures cannot be split up (although they can span streets). When you decide to place a building, you can use the cut-out icon for the appropriate type of structure and affix the building where you wish in your city grid. It takes 1 month to construct a building, no matter what size the building is—its benefits apply immediately.
Population: A city’s population is equal to the number of completed blocks within its districts × 250. A city grid that has all 36 blocks filled with buildings has a population of 9,000.
Defensive Modifier: A city’s Defensive Modifier can be increased by building certain structures (such as city walls) and has an impact on mass combat (see Pathfinder Adventure Path volume #35). Keep track of your city’s Defensive Modifier, but until the city is attacked by an invading army (something scheduled to occur later in the Kingmaker Adventure Path), this value is not used.
Base Value: The base value associated with a city built in this manner is tied not to its size but rather to the number of Economy-based buildings it has. Each such building, whether it’s a shop, tavern, or brothel, increases a city’s base value. Any magic item equal to or lower than this base value in cost is available for purchase 75% of the time—this check may be made again every month (as new stock comes and goes). Any nonmagical item from the equipment chapter in the Pathfinder RPG Core Rulebook is always available if its cost is lower than the city’s base value. Cities with multiple districts add the individual base values of each district together to determine the entire city’s base value, with an upper limit of 16,000 gp per city.
At the GM’s whim, using construction magic (such as a lyre of building or spells like fabricate or wall of stone) can reduce the cost of a building’s BP by 2 (minimum of 0 BP). This is a one-time reduction, regardless of the amount of magic used.
Magic Item Availability: A certain number of more powerful and valuable magic items are available for purchase in any city, although these items tend to be of a somewhat random nature as new items are found or created and enter the economy. As with base value, a community’s size does not influence the number of magic items above base value that are available for purchase. Instead, these items become available as certain buildings (like academies or magic shops) are added to a city. Whenever such a building is added to a city, place an “X” in one of the boxes next to the appropriate item category to indicate that the city has gained a “slot” in that category. During every Upkeep phase, randomly roll a magic item of the appropriate category for each empty slot.
After it is generated, a magic item remains on the market until it is purchased. Alternatively, once per Income phase, a kingdom can make Economy checks to try to sell items; once the item is sold, its slot remains empty until the next Upkeep phase (see page 61).

Building Types

Adding buildings to a city is one of the most efficient ways to enhance your kingdom’s statistics, as each block of buildings added to a city in your kingdom grants a specific bonus. Page 62 of Pathfinder 32 presents icons for 31 one-block buildings, eight two-block buildings, and four four-block buildings. Descriptions of each of these buildings, as well as the bonuses it provides once it’s added to a city, are listed below.
The building’s BP cost and any prerequisite buildings that must be built first are listed in parentheses after its name. The building’s benefit to the city and kingdom once it is constructed is listed last in italics. If a building affects Unrest, it does so only once, when it is first constructed.
A fair amount of additional residential structures are common amid most one- and two-block structures.

  • Academy (52 BP): An institution of higher learning that can focus on any area of knowledge or education, including magic. Halves cost of Caster’s Tower, Library, and Magic Shop in same city; 3 minor items, 2 medium items; Economy +2, Loyalty +2.
  • Alchemist (18 BP; must be adjacent to 1 house): The laboratory and home of a creator of potions, poisons, and alchemical items. City base value +1,000 gp; 1 minor item; Economy +1.
  • Arena (40 BP): A large public structure for competitions, demonstrations, team sports, or bloodsports. Halves cost of Garrison or Theater in same city; halves Consumption increase penalty for festival edicts; Stability +4; limit one per city.
  • Barracks (12 BP): A building to house city guards, militia, and military forces. Defense Modifier +2; Unrest –1.
  • Black Market (50 BP; must be adjacent to 2 houses): A number of shops with secret and usually illegal or dangerous wares. City base value +2,000; 2 minor items, 1 medium item, 1 major item; Economy +2, Stability +1; Unrest +1.
  • Brewery (6 BP): A building for beermaking, winemaking, or similar use. Loyalty +1, Stability +1.
  • Brothel (4 BP; must be adjacent to 1 house): A place to pay for companionship of any sort. Economy +1, Loyalty +2; Unrest +1.
  • Caster’s Tower (30 BP): The home and laboratory for a spellcaster. 3 minor items, 2 medium items; Economy +1, Loyalty +1.
  • Castle (54 BP): The home of the city’s leader or the heart of its defenses. Halves cost of Noble Villa or Town Hall in same city; Economy +2, Loyalty +2, Stability +2; Defense Modifier +8; Unrest –4; limit one per city.
  • Cathedral (58 BP): The focal point of the city’s religion and spiritual leadership. Halves cost of Temple or Academy in same city; halves Consumption increase penalty for promotion edicts; 3 minor items, 2 medium items; Loyalty +4; Unrest –4; limit one per city.
  • City Wall (8 BP): City walls do not occupy a city block— rather, purchasing a city wall fortifies one of a district’s four outer borders. A city wall cannot be built on a water border. Defense Modifier +4; Unrest –2.
  • Dump (4 BP): A centralized place to dispose of refuse. Loyalty +1, Stability +1.
  • Exotic Craftsman (10 BP; must be adjacent to 1 house): The workshop and home of an exotic craftsman, such as a creator of magic items, a tinker, a fireworks maker, or a glassblower. 1 minor item; Loyalty +1, Stability +1.
  • Garrison (28 BP): A large building to house armies, train guards, and recruit militia. Halves cost of City Wall, Granary, and Jail in same city; Loyalty +2, Stability +2; Unrest –2.
  • Granary (12 BP): A place to store grain and food. Loyalty +1, Stability +1.
  • Graveyard (4 BP): A plot of land to honor and bury the dead. Economy +1, Loyalty +1.
  • Guildhall (34 BP; must be adjacent to 1 house): A large building that serves as headquarters for a guild or similar organization. City base value +1,000 gp; halves cost of Pier, Stable, and Tradesman in same city; Economy +2, Loyalty +2.
  • Herbalist (10 BP; must be adjacent to 1 house): The workshop and home of a gardener, healer, poisoner, or creator of potions. 1 minor item; Loyalty +1, Stability +1.
  • House (3 BP): A number of mid-sized houses for citizens. Houses serve as prerequisites for many other buildings. The first house you build during any Improvement Phase does not count against the total number of buildings you can build during the phase. Unrest –1.
  • Inn (10 BP; must be adjacent to 1 house): A place for visitors to spend the night. City base value +500 gp; Economy +1, Loyalty +1.
  • Jail (14 BP): A fortified structure for housing criminals. Loyalty +2, Stability +2; Unrest –2.
  • Library (6 BP): A large building containing books, often presided over by a sage or other scholar. Economy +1, Loyalty +1.
  • Luxury Store (28 BP; must be adjacent to 1 house): A shop that specializes in expensive wares and luxuries. City base value +2,000 gp; 2 minor items; Economy +1.
  • Magic Shop (68 BP; must be adjacent to 2 houses): A shop that specializes in magic items and spells. City base value +2,000 gp; 4 minor items, 2 medium items, 1 major item; Economy +1.
  • Mansion (10 BP): A single huge manor housing a rich family and its servants. Stability +1.
  • Market (48 BP; must be adjacent to 2 houses): An open area for mercantile pursuits, traveling merchants, and bargain hunters. City base value +2,000 gp; halves cost of Black Market, Inn, and Shop in same city; 2 minor items; Economy +2, Stability +2.
  • Mill (6 BP; must be next to a water border): A building used to cut lumber or grind grain. Economy +1, Stability +1.
  • Monument (6 BP): A monument can be a statue of a city founder, a bell tower, a large tomb, or a public display of art. Loyalty +3; Unrest –1.
  • Noble Villa (24 BP): A sprawling manor with luxurious grounds that houses a noble. Halves cost of Exotic Craftsman, Luxury Store, and Mansion in same city; Economy +1, Loyalty +1, Stability +1.
  • Park (4 BP): A plot of land set aside for its natural beauty. Loyalty +1; Unrest –1.
  • Piers (16 BP; must be adjacent to a water border): Warehouses and workshops for docking ships and handling cargo and passengers. City base value +1,000 gp; +1 Economy, +1 Stability.
  • Shop (8 BP; must be adjacent to 1 house): A general store. City base value +500 gp; Economy +1.
  • Shrine (8 BP): A small shrine or similar holy site. 1 minor item; Loyalty +1; Unrest –1.
  • Smith (6 BP): An armor smith, blacksmith, or weapon smith. Economy +1, Stability +1.
  • Stable (10 BP; must be adjacent to 1 house): A structure for housing or selling horses and other mounts. City base value +500 gp; Economy +1, Loyalty +1.
  • Tannery (6 BP; cannot be adjacent to a house): A structure that prepares hides and leather. Economy +1, Stability +1.
  • Tavern (12 BP; must be adjacent to 1 house): An eatery or drinking establishment. City base value +500 gp; Economy +1, Loyalty +1.
  • Temple (32 BP): A large place of worship dedicated to a deity. Halves cost of Graveyard, Monument, and Shrine in same city; 2 minor items; Loyalty +2, Stability +2; Unrest –2.
  • Tenement (1 BP): A staggering number of low-rent, cheap housing units. Tenements count as houses for the purpose of fulfilling building requirements, but building too many tenements can increase a kingdom’s Unrest quickly. You can build a house over an existing tenement for 2 BP. Unrest +2.
  • Theater (24 BP): A venue for providing entertainment such as plays, operas, concerts, and the like. Halves cost of Brothel, Park, and Tavern in same city; Economy +2, Stability +2.
  • Town Hall (22 BP): A public venue for town meetings and repository for town records. Halves cost of Barracks, Dump, and Watchtower in same city; Economy +1, Loyalty +1, Stability +1.
  • Tradesman (10 BP; must be adjacent to 1 house): A shopfront for a tradesman, such as a baker, butcher, candle maker, cooper, or rope maker. City base value +500 gp; +1 Economy, +1 Stability.
  • Watchtower (6 BP): A tall structure that serves as a guard post and landmark. +1 Stability; +2 Defense Modifier; Unrest –1.
  • Waterfront (90 BP; must be adjacent to a water border): A port for arrival and departure when traveling by water, facilities for building ships, and a center of commerce. City base value +4,000 gp; 3 minor items, 2 medium items, 1 major item; halves cost of Guildhall and Market in same city, halves Loyalty penalty for tax edicts; Economy +4; limit one per city.

Preparing a City District Site

Terrain Cost to Prepare Time to Prepare
Forest 4 BP 2 months
Grassland 1 BP Immediate*
Hills 2 BP 1 month
Mountains 12 BP 4 months
Swamp 8 BP 3 months

*Construction of buildings can be started the same month for grassland cities.

Gaining Experience

As their kingdom grows, the PCs gain experience points. Use the following guidelines to determine when and how much XP should be awarded. These XP awards should only be awarded the first time each event occurs.
Founding a kingdom: 2,400 XP
Establishing a capital city: 1,200 XP
Reaching a kingdom size of 5: 1,600 XP
Reaching a kingdom size of 10: 2,400 XP
Reaching a kingdom size of 25: 3,200 XP
Reaching a kingdom size of 50: 4,800 XP
Reaching a kingdom size of 75: 6,400 XP
Reaching a kingdom size of 100: 12,800 XP
Reaching a kingdom size of 150: 25,600 XP
Reaching a kingdom size of 200: 76,800 XP
Filling a square with four blocks of buildings: 1,600 XP
Filling three city squares with buildings: 4,800 XP
Filling an entire city grid with buildings: 12,800 XP

Ruling a Kingdom

Like a player character’s stat block, a kingdom’s stat block continues to evolve and grow as the kingdom expands, gathers more resources, purchases upgrades, and suffers defeats and setbacks. As the kingdom grows, the PCs will need to deal with a host of situations, all of which can further influence the kingdom’s stat block.
A kingdom’s growth occurs during four phases, which represent a month in total. When the PCs establish a kingdom, you should pick a day of each month to resolve that kingdom’s growth and fortunes—it’s best to set this as the last day of each month, so that any accomplishments the PCs have made during that month can impact that month’s growth.
One thing to decide early on is who makes kingdom rolls. The obvious choice is for the Ruler to roll the dice, as this adds a feeling of command to that player’s role. You can also assign each roll to a specific leader—for example, the Treasurer might make Economy checks and the Warden may wish to make all checks having to do with events under her command. Ultimately, since a kingdom is shared by all the players, it doesn’t matter who makes the kingdom’s Economy, Loyalty, and Stability checks, but assigning them can be fun nonetheless.

Upkeep Phase

During a kingdom’s Upkeep phase, take the following actions. If your kingdom currently controls 0 hexes, skip this phase and proceed to the Improvement phase.

  • Step 1—Determine Kingdom Stability: Make a Stability check against your Command DC to determine your kingdom’s level of security for the month. If you make the check, reduce your kingdom’s Unrest by 1 (if your Unrest is at 0, gain 1 BP as a result of surplus goods and services). If you fail this check by 5 or more, increase Unrest by 2.
  • Step 2—Pay Consumption: Deduct your kingdom’s Consumption from the kingdom’s Treasury BP. If you aren’t able to pay for the month’s Consumption, your kingdom’s BP drops into the negative. Every time you end an Upkeep phase with negative BP in your Treasury, your kingdom’s Unrest increases by 2.
  • Step 3—Fill Vacant Magic Item Slots: If there are any vacant magic item slots in any cities, randomly roll new items to fill these slots.
  • Step 4—Unrest: If the kingdom’s Unrest is 11 or higher, it loses one hex chosen by the kingdom’s leaders. Any improvements in that hex (farmlands and roads) are lost and must be rebuilt after the hex is reclaimed. Any settlements in that hex become towns that must be annexed if they are to be reclaimed into the kingdom (see page 56). Finally, if the kingdom employs a Royal Assassin, reduce your total Unrest by 1 at the end of this phase.

Improvement Phase

During a kingdom’s Improvement phase, take the following actions. The number of improvements you can make during a single phase is limited by your kingdom’s size; see the Improvements per Month table for these limits.

  • Step 1—Select Leadership: Assign leaders to any vacant leadership roles. Leaders must be PCs or closely allied NPCs. You can change leaders as often as you want with no impact on your nation’s statistics (apart from changing what bonuses apply, as the ability scores of leaders differ); reallocating roles allows you to give every player a chance to play the role of ruler if you wish.
  • Step 2—Claim Hexes: Each hex on the maps of the Stolen Lands measures 12 miles across, and the Pcs’ kingdom must be built hex by hex. To claim a hex, you must explore it and clear it of monsters or dangerous hazards; the hex must also be adjacent to a hex that is already part of the kingdom (with the exception of the first hex, which can be anywhere). At this point, you can claim the hex as part of the kingdom by spending 1 BP. Increase your kingdom’s size (and thus its Consumption) by 1 for each hex you claim. You can abandon a hex to reduce your kingdom’s Size. Doing so increases Unrest by 1 (or by 4, if the abandoned hex contained a city).
  • Step 3—Establish and Improve Cities: Prepare land for city districts and then purchase new buildings for your kingdom’s cities. The building’s adjustments to your nation apply immediately. You can also destroy buildings at this time in order to clear a space to build something new; if you destroy a building, don’t forget to remove its benefits from your kingdom’s statistics!
  • Step 4—Build Roads: Roads have an immediate initial cost but over the long term can pay for the investment handsomely. It costs 1 BP to build a road though a hex. This cost increases to 2 BP in forests and to 4 BP in swamps and mountains. If the road crosses a river, a bridge must be built—this doubles the road’s cost.
  • Step 5: Establish Farmlands: You can develop any grassland or hill hex that contains roads into farmlands to help sustain your kingdom’s Consumption. It costs 2 BP to designate a grassland hex as farmland and 4 BP to designate a hill hex as farmland. You cannot build a city on a farmland hex. Every farmland hex in your kingdom reduces your Consumption by 2 BP.
  • Step 6: Edicts: Pick or adjust your edict levels (see page 55) as you wish.

Income Phase

During a kingdom’s Income phase, take the following actions.

  • Step 1—Deposits: You can add funds to a kingdom’s treasury by donating coins, gems, jewelry, weapons, armor, magic items, and other valuables you find while adventuring. For every full 4,000 gp in value of the deposit, increase your kingdom’s BP by 1. Items that individually cost more than 4,000 gp must be sold as detailed under Step 3 below.
  • Step 2—Withdrawals: You can also withdraw funds from the kingdom’s treasury, but doing so runs the risk of annoying the citizens. Each time you withdraw funds, the kingdom’s Unrest increases by 1. In addition, you must make a Loyalty check (DC = Command DC + number of BP being withdrawn); a failure causes your kingdom to gain Unrest equal to the total BP withdrawn. Each BP withdrawn in this manner converts into 2,000 gp.
  • Step 3—Sell Valuable Items: You can attempt to sell items that cost more than 4,000 gp through your city’s markets to bolster your kingdom’s Treasury; these can be items you recover during an adventure or they can be magic items currently held by any of your cities. To sell these items, make an Economy check (DC 20 for minor items, DC 35 for moderate items, and DC 50 for major items). A failed check indicates the item doesn’t sell. Success indicates that the item sells and you can increase your kingdom’s treasury by 2 BP (for minor items), 8 BP (for moderate items), or 15 BP (for major items). You can make one Economy check per city district during each Income phase.
  • Step 4—Generate Income: Make an Economy check against your Command DC at the end of your Income phase. If you’re successful, divide your result by 5 (dropping any fractions) and increase your Treasury’s BP by that amount.

Event Phase

During a kingdom’s Event phase, roll once on the Kingdom Events table to determine if an event occurs. Adventurespecific kingdom events occur during this phase. Once you’ve determined what kind of event occurs (if any), simply follow the rules for each event to determine how the event impacts the PCs’ kingdom or cities.
Chance of an Event: There’s a 25% chance that a random event occurs during an Event phase. This chance increases to 75% if no event occurred in the previous Event phase.

Kingdom Events

Listed below are numerous events that can occur during an Event phase. Some events are listed as “continuous” events—their effects continue through every Event phase until the events are resolved by making the appropriate check during an Event phase.
Harmful events can be lessened or negated with a successful Economy, Loyalty, or Stability check, as indicated by the event. The DC of these checks is equal to the kingdom Command DC (20 + kingdom size).
Assassination Attempt: One of your leaders (determined randomly) is the target of an assassination attempt. If the target is a PC, you should play out the attempt, using an assassin of a CR equal to the targeted PC’s level + 1. If the target is an NPC, you can simply make a Stability check to negate the attempt. If the leader is assassinated, the nation gains 1d6 Unrest points and immediately suffers the penalties for not having a leader in that role until the role is filled during a subsequent Improvement phase.
Bandit Activity (continuous): Bandits are preying upon those who travel through your kingdom. Make a Stability check. If you succeed, your kingdom’s defenses stop the banditry before it causes problems. If you fail, the bandits reduce your kingdom’s Treasury total by 1d6 BP (each time you roll a 6, reroll that die and add the result to the total).
Disaster: A fire, storm, earthquake, flood, sabotage, or other disaster strikes! Roll 1d6—on a result of 1–5, the disaster is localized and affects only 1d4 city blocks in one city. On a 6, the disaster is widespread and affects 1d6 city blocks in each of your kingdom’s cities. Make a Stability check for each affected city block—every failure results in that city block’s destruction (this Stability check represents your kingdom’s ability to prepare for or react to the disaster as much as it represents the structure’s ability to withstand damage).
Boom: Trade is booming in your kingdom! Increase your Treasury by 1d6 BP (each time you roll a 6, reroll that die and add the result to the total).
Feud: Nobles in your cities are bickering. Unless you can smooth over ruffled feathers with a Loyalty check, the feud increases Unrest by 1d6.
Food Shortage: Spoilage, treachery, or simple bad luck have resulted in a food shortage this month. If you fail a Stability check, your Consumption is doubled during the next Upkeep phase.
Food Surplus: Farmers produce an unexpected windfall! Your Consumption is halved during the next Upkeep phase.
Good Weather: Good weather raises spirits and productivity. You gain a +4 bonus on Loyalty checks until your next Event phase.
Monster Attack (continuous): A monster (or group of monsters) attacks the kingdom—pick a hex the PCs have claimed to determine which hex the monster is active in. You can determine the type of monster by rolling on a wandering monster table until you get a result of CR 7 or higher. If the PCs don’t set out to defeat the monster or monsters, a Stability check removes the threat. If the monster is not defeated, Unrest increases by 4. If your kingdom’s Unrest is 5 or higher, the hex the monster dwells in becomes unclaimed at this time (this is in addition to losing control of hexes during Upkeep due to high Unrest).
Natural Blessing: A natural event, such as a bloom of rare and beautiful wildflowers or good omens in the stars, raises your kingdom’s morale. You gain a +4 bonus on Stability checks until your next Event phase.
Outstanding Success: One of your kingdom’s citizens creates an artistic masterpiece, constructs a particularly impressive building, or otherwise brings fame to your kingdom. You gain 1d6 BP and a +4 bonus on Economy checks until your next Event phase. Reduce Unrest by 2.
Plague (continuous): A deadly contagion strikes your kingdom! Choose a hex containing a city in your kingdom— this is where the plague strikes. If you control no cities, treat this as if no event had been rolled. Otherwise, make a Stability check to curtail the plague’s spread. If you fail, increase Unrest by 1d6 and reduce your treasury by 1d6 BP. A plague-stricken city cannot build new structures.
Political Calm: A sudden absence of political machinations coincides with an increase in public approval. Reduce Unrest by 6.
Public Scandal: One of your leaders is implicated in a crime or an embarrassing situation, such as an affair with another leader’s spouse. If you fail a Loyalty check, increase Unrest by 2 and suffer a –4 penalty on all Loyalty checks until your next Event phase.
Sensational Crime (continuous): A serial killer, arsonist, flamboyant thief, or daring bandit plagues your kingdom. Make a Stability check to catch the criminal; otherwise increase Unrest by 2.
New Vassals: A small group of indigenous creatures joins your kingdom and submits to your rule. Reduce Unrest by 2 and gain 1d6 BP (each time you roll a 6, reroll that die and add the result to the total).
Visiting Celebrity: A celebrity from elsewhere on Golarion visits your kingdom, causing a sudden influx of visitors and spending. Increase the Treasury by 2d6 BP (each time you roll a 6, reroll that die and add its results to the total).

PFRPG Kingdom Sheet


Improvements Per Month

Kingdom Size New Cities New Buildings Hex Claims Roads Farmlands
1–10 1 1 1 1 1
11–25 1 2 2 2 1
26–50 1 5 3 3 2
51–100 2 10 4 4 2
101–200 3 20 8 6 3
201+ 4 No limit 12 8 4

House Rules

These pertain to the ruling of Isla Mogrova

  • The hexes used in the map are half the size of the Pathfinder ones, being 6 miles from end to end. This means that the times to accomplish tasks will be reduced as follows.

Traveling (Time to cross 1 hex)

Party Speed Plains All Other Terrains
15 feet 5 hours 8 hours
20 feet 4 hours 6 hours
30 feet 3 hours 4 hours
40 feet 2 hours 3 hours
50 feet 1.5 hours 2.5 hours

Exploring (Time to fully explore 1 hex)

Party Speed Plains Forest or Hill Mountain or Swamp
15 feet 2 days 2 days 3 days
20 feet 2 days 2 days 3 days
30 feet 1 day 2 days 2 days
40 feet 1 day 1 day 2 days
50 feet 1 day 1 day 1 day
  • The size of the kingdom is 1/2 the amount of hexes it controls rather than the full amount. So 28 hexes = Size 14 kingdom.
  • The Control DC is 20+size, so in the above example the control DC is 34.
  • The Farmland hexes only reduce consumption by 1 point instead of 2 because of their reduced size.
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